Modern slavery encompasses slavery, servitude, forced and compulsory labour and human trafficking. Traffickers and slave drivers coerce, deceive and force individuals against their will into a life of abuse, servitude and inhumane treatment. A large number of active organised crime groups are involved in modern slavery. But it is also committed by individual opportunistic perpetrators. (UK Modern Slavery Strategy) ( Pan-Cheshire Modern Slavery Strategy 17-19 ).
‘the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised’.
Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery 1926
Forced or Compulsory Labour is:
‘all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily’.
Convention Concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour, 1930 (No.29)
Labour is the provision of any service, not just manual labour.
‘an obligation to provide a service that is imposed by the use of coercion’.
Human Trafficking is:
Although many people think of human trafficking as only affecting adults it affects children as well. Child trafficking is child abuse. Children are recruited, moved or transported and then exploited, forced to work or sold. They are often subject to multiple forms of exploitation. Please see the below Children Trafficking protocol below.
It is also not just about trafficking adults and children across national borders, human trafficking can take place anywhere.
The trafficking of human beings involves the movement of a person from one place to another for the purpose of exploiting them using deception, coercion, the abuse of power or the abuse of someone’s vulnerability. People can be trafficked in order to exploit them for:
- Sexual purposes
- Forced labour
- Domestic servitude
- Organ harvesting
HM Government has issued guidance on child trafficking. The link will take you direct to the guidance: Safeguarding Trafficked Children
United Kingdom Human Trafficking Centre (UKHTC)
The UKHTC works to combat human trafficking within the UK and internationally. It is part of the National Crime Agency working with partners to protect the public, target the traffickers and reduce the harm caused by human trafficking.
National Referral Mechanism
The National Referral Mechanism (NRM) is a framework for identifying victims of human trafficking or modern slavery and ensuring they receive the appropriate support.
The NRM was introduced in 2009 to meet the UK’s obligations under the Council of European Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. At the core of every country’s NRM is the process of locating and identifying “potential victims of trafficking”.
For more information about the UKHTC and NRM visit NCA website: NCA UKHTC
NRM Guidance and both adult and children NRM Form can be found on the HM Government website NRM
If you wish to learn more about child trafficking why not try the free eLearning course ‘In Your Hands – Safeguarding Child Victims of Trafficking’ provided by ECPAT UK which is contained within the eLearning section of this website.
WSCB Missing, Child Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking Sub Group and Operational Group
The Warrington Safeguarding Children Board has a Missing, Child Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking Sub Group and Operational Group. The sub group scrutinises the effectiveness of services and the quality of the infrastructure to keep children and young people at risk of sexual exploitation and missing from home and care safe. The operational group receives and reviews referrals and information and ensures an effective plan is in place to safeguard the child / children.
UK Independent Anti Slavery Commissioner
The UKs first ‘Independent Anti Slavery Commissioner’ is Kevin Hyland.
For more information click here: Anti Slavery Commissioner
Cheshire Anti-Slavery Network
Human Trafficking and modern slavery are not matters that any one individual agency can address alone; agencies from the public and voluntary sectors must work together to protect people, especially children, from being trafficked and forced into slavery. The Cheshire Anti-Slavery Network is a multi-agency group that is committed to working together to prevent modern slavery and human trafficking.
Reporting Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery
All human trafficking and Modern Slavery crimes should be reported to Cheshire Police via 101 or you can contact the charity Crimestoppers anonymously on 0800 555 111.
Incidents involving children should be reported to Warrington Borough Council Assessment and Intervention Team on 01925 443400.
In an emergency contact the police via 999
Child Trafficking Advice Centre (CTAC)
The NSPCC Child Trafficking Advice Centre (CTAC) provides free guidance and training to professionals concerned that a child or young person has been or is about to be trafficked into or out of the UK.
A link to the NSPCC CTAC website can be found in the ‘useful links’ area of this page
NSPCC CTAC have recently published guidance for professionals on ‘Working with children from Romania’